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4. Free energyThe availability of work

4. Free energy: The availability of work  

Peter Atkins

in The Laws of Thermodynamics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777608
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199572199.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199572199
Free energy can be defined as the energy within a system that is free to do work rather than escape from the system as heat. ‘Free energy’ defines and explains the terms free energy, ... More
5. Changing the state of matter

5. Changing the state of matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
‘Changing the state of matter’ considers the transformations states of matter undergo from one form to another during the processes of freezing, boiling, dissolving, and mixing. All such ... More
9. The 24-hour society

9. The 24-hour society  

Steven W. Lockley and Russell G. Foster

in Sleep: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777912
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199587858.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199587858
We live in a society of 24-hour news coverage, supermarkets, and internet availability. The odds are stacked against good sleep. How have we arrived at this state of affairs? Shift work is ... More
1. Waves in essence

1. Waves in essence  

Mike Goldsmith

in Waves: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2018
Published Online: 
Nov 2018
eISBN: 
9780191842092
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198803782.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198803782
Most waves can be defined by just a few parameters: period, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, particle velocity, phase velocity, and group velocity. ‘Waves in essence’ explains these ... More
3. Claiming and negotiating the Antarctic

3. Claiming and negotiating the Antarctic  

Klaus Dodds

in The Antarctic: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778438
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199697687.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199697687
World political divisions are generally easy to define with a few exceptions where there is uncertainty. However, large parts of the Antarctic are claimed by seven states: Argentina, ... More
6. Nature's patterns

6. Nature's patterns  

Ian Stewart

in Symmetry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778292
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199651986.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199651986
‘Nature's patterns’ explores symmetry in the natural world. Bilateral symmetry in organisms has been shown to be controlled genetically. However, anatomical symmetry is broken in some organ ... More
6. Changing the identity of matter

6. Changing the identity of matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
A great deal of chemistry is concerned with changing the identity of matter by the deployment of chemical reactions. Physical chemists are interested in a variety of aspects of chemical ... More
7. Some past and current controversies

7. Some past and current controversies  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
The structure, dynamics, and properties of water are pretty well understood. We have a good idea of its structure, and how that structure explains why its properties are sometimes different ... More
3. Water as ice(s)

3. Water as ice(s)  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
‘Water as ice(s)’ describes the sixteen known crystalline phases of ice, starting with normal ice, as well as a potential seventeenth phase called cubic ice, for which they may be evidence ... More
4. Water as a liquid—and as glass(es)

4. Water as a liquid—and as glass(es)  

John Finney

in Water: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785597
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198708728.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198708728
For a liquid to flow, the molecules must move. So can a liquid have a structure? ‘Water as a liquid—and as glass(es)’ illustrates that it can; under normal temperature and pressure ... More
1. Microscopy and the discovery of a new world

1. Microscopy and the discovery of a new world  

Terence Allen

in Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701262
‘Microscopy and the discovery of a new world’ explains how microscopes were first constructed in the early 17th century by Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, as a development from the ... More
3. Light microscopy—from Abbe to superresolution

3. Light microscopy—from Abbe to superresolution  

Terence Allen

in Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701262
Hooke’s compound microscope provided the starting point from which microscopy has developed. It has an objective lens close to the specimen that produces a magnified intermediate image, ... More
3. Crystal structures

3. Crystal structures  

A. M. Glazer

in Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191787072
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717591.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717591
‘Crystal structures’ describes the different types of close packing—hexagonal, cubic, face-centred cubic, and body-centred cubic—used to describe many simple inorganic structures, ... More
6. Symmetry

6. Symmetry  

Stephen Blundell

in Superconductivity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2009
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777240
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199540907.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199540907
The BCS theory appeared to be the final word in superconductivity, showing how electrons can pair up, and how these pairs can together form a giant collective unit in which the phases of ... More
Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction  

Peter Atkins

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199689095
With the development of a variety of exciting new areas of research involving computational chemistry, nano- and smart materials, and applications of the recently discovered graphene, there ... More
6. Quantum matter

6. Quantum matter  

Geoff Cottrell

in Matter: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2019
Published Online: 
Mar 2019
eISBN: 
9780191844133
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198806547.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198806547
When vast numbers of particles cluster together, they can, under special conditions, display coherent quantum behaviour at the macroscopic level. ‘Quantum matter’ explains how this produces ... More

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