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3. Protein nutrition

3. Protein nutrition  

David A. Bender

in Nutrition: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2014
Published Online: 
Jun 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779985
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199681921.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199681921
About 14 per cent of the human body is protein, so a growing child, or pregnant woman must have protein intake to increase the total amount of protein in the body, or foetus, as it grows. ... More
2. Energy nutrition

2. Energy nutrition  

David A. Bender

in Nutrition: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2014
Published Online: 
Jun 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779985
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199681921.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199681921
Apart from water, the body’s first requirement under all conditions is for an energy source to perform physical and chemical work. ‘Energy nutrition’ explains that the metabolic fuels to ... More
Conclusionthe varied concepts of the gene

Conclusion: the varied concepts of the gene  

Jonathan Slack

in Genes: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2014
Published Online: 
Sep 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780950
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199676507.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199676507
There are many concepts of the gene. They range from defined sequences of DNA encoding proteins, to variant genes distinguishing individuals (markers), to unknown genes controlling ... More
5. The tick-tock of the molecular clock

5. The tick-tock of the molecular clock  

Russell G. Foster and Leon Kreitzman

in Circadian Rhythms: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191787164
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717683.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717683
Circadian clocks in animals and plants arise from multiple and interconnected transcription–translation feedback loops that ensure the proper oscillation of thousands of genes in a ... More
4. HIV

4. HIV  

Marta L. Wayne and Benjamin M. Bolker

in Infectious Disease: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785276
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688937.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688937
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Its transmission is by exchange of bodily fluids. HIV can only enter immune cells with the ... More
6. Stem cells

6. Stem cells  

Terence Allen and Graham Cowling

in The Cell: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777745
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578757.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578757
How are the billions of cells in our bodies made? In plants and animals, there are cells capable of producing every type of cell the organism will need from birth to death. Once an organism ... More
1. What are viruses?

1. What are viruses?  

Dorothy H. Crawford

in Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2018
Published Online: 
Mar 2018
eISBN: 
9780191848520
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811718.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811718
‘What are viruses?’ introduces viruses and their structure. Martinus Beijerinck, in 1898, was the first to coin the term ‘virus’, and invention of the electron microscope in the late 1930s ... More
Nutrition: A Very Short Introduction

Nutrition: A Very Short Introduction  

David Bender

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2014
Published Online: 
Jun 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779985
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199681921.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199681921
Nutrition is a topic of wide interest and importance. In spite of a growing understanding of the underlying biochemistry, and health campaigns such as ‘five-a-day’, increasing obesity and ... More
1. Origins

1. Origins  

Sebastian G.B. Amyes

in Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2013
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777752
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578764.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578764
‘Origins’ considers how bacteria, single-celled organisms known as prokaryotic cells, first emerged approximately 3.5 billion years ago, developing from a common ancestor of prokaryotic and ... More
2. The structure of cells

2. The structure of cells  

Terence Allen and Graham Cowling

in The Cell: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777745
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199578757.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199578757
‘The structure of cells’ examines detailed cell structure. The plasma membrane is the cell's boundary structure and provides a barrier to other cells and the external environment. These ... More
7. Some difficult problems

7. Some difficult problems  

Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth

in Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jun 2017
eISBN: 
9780191842719
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804369.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804369
‘Some difficult problems’ describes some examples of biological phenomena that are difficult to explain including the evolution of flight, eyes, and protein molecules; and why ageing occurs ... More
6. The formation and divergence of species

6. The formation and divergence of species  

Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth

in Evolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jun 2017
eISBN: 
9780191842719
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198804369.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198804369
‘The formation and divergence of species’ is concerned with the evolution of new species and of differences between species. Different species that coexist in the same locality remain ... More
4. The chemistry of life

4. The chemistry of life  

Graham Patrick

in Organic Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2017
Published Online: 
Mar 2017
eISBN: 
9780191820779
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198759775.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198759775
From very simple molecular building blocks, life has created an astonishing diversity of molecules, some of which are extremely complex structures that prove very difficult to synthesize in ... More
4. Proteins

4. Proteins  

Aysha Divan and Janice A. Royds

in Molecular Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2016
Published Online: 
Aug 2016
eISBN: 
9780191791192
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198723882.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198723882
Biological functions require protein and the protein makeup of a cell determines its behaviour and identity. Proteins, therefore, are the most abundant molecules in the body except for ... More
6. Genetic engineering

6. Genetic engineering  

Aysha Divan and Janice A. Royds

in Molecular Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2016
Published Online: 
Aug 2016
eISBN: 
9780191791192
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198723882.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198723882
Gene-cloning processes enable us to produce large amounts of a DNA sequence so that its function can be studied. These technologies can also be applied in medicine and agriculture to ... More
5. Seeing atoms

5. Seeing atoms  

A. M. Glazer

in Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Mar 2016
eISBN: 
9780191787072
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198717591.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198717591
It is clear that knowledge of the relative phases is essential if we wish to find the atoms in a crystal. So what do we do if we do not have phase information? ‘Seeing atoms’ describes the ... More
2. Vital signs: the molecules of life

2. Vital signs: the molecules of life  

Philip Ball

in Molecules: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2003
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191776724
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854308.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854308
‘Vital signs: the molecules of life’ outlines the molecular basis of life. Understanding molecular life is as much about understanding interactions between molecules and their position ... More
5. Life: a genome's way of making more and fitter genomes

5. Life: a genome's way of making more and fitter genomes  

David C. Catling

in Astrobiology: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779923
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199586455.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199586455
‘Life: a genome's way of making more and fitter genomes’ provides a global perspective of terrestrial biology. The history of life on Earth can be deduced from the way that evolution has ... More
4. Identifying what we see

4. Identifying what we see  

Terence Allen

in Microscopy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2015
Published Online: 
May 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785290
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198701262.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198701262
‘Identifying what we see’ describes the basics of light emission, the development of fluorescent stains, the identification of cellular components, the development of fluorescent probes ... More
Genes: A Very Short Introduction

Genes: A Very Short Introduction  

Jonathan Slack

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2014
Published Online: 
Sep 2014
eISBN: 
9780191780950
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199676507.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199676507
What are genes? What do they say about us? Genes: A Very Short Introduction explores the concept of the gene and looks at the discovery, nature, and role of genes in both evolution and ... More

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