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2. Freedom as free will

2. Freedom as free will  

Thomas Pink

in Free Will: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776366
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853585.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853585
‘Freedom as free will’ examines the link between freedom and reason. Most animals lack the capacity for freedom of action. They can have desires and purposeful actions, but they lack the ... More
5. Morals, Politics, and Religion

5. Morals, Politics, and Religion  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
Hume's commitment to naturalism underpinned his treatment of morals, politics and religion. ‘Morals, Politics, and Religion’ shows how his belief that ‘ought’ does not follow from ‘is’ ... More
5. Heraclitus

5. Heraclitus  

Catherine Osborne

in Presocratic Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776267
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192840943.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192840943
‘Heraclitus’ examines the questions raised by Heraclitus, pointing out that his sayings provide material for many different versions of his thought. Heraclitus called the systematic ... More
1. Reason and BeliefRichness and diversity in Indian thought

1. Reason and Belief: Richness and diversity in Indian thought  

Sue Hamilton

in Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2001
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776403
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853745.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853745
India has a very long tradition of philosophical debate which has lasted for two and a half millennia and straddles many diverse religious traditions. Philosophy in India is seen as an ... More
2. Aims and Methods

2. Aims and Methods  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
Hume aimed to continue the empirical enquiry begun by Locke to criticise trust in reason and question the nature of causality. ‘Aims and Methods’ discusses Hume's attempts to create a ... More
7. Discourse ethics II: ethical discourse and the political turn

7. Discourse ethics II: ethical discourse and the political turn  

James Gordon Finlayson

in Habermas: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776274
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192840950.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192840950
Habermas revised his original programme of discourse ethics in the 1990s. Here he drew a distinction between moral, ethical, and practical reason. The significance of the revision lies in ... More
1. Humans and beasts: understanding ourselves

1. Humans and beasts: understanding ourselves  

Julia Annas

in Ancient Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776359
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853578.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853578
How do we decide between two courses of action? How can anger, or any other emotion or feeling, get someone to go against what they have deliberately resolved to do? ‘Humans and beasts: ... More
3. Reason

3. Reason  

Thomas Pink

in Free Will: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776366
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853585.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853585
‘Reason’ investigates the effect of reason on compatibilism. Compatibilism comes from two sources: the rationalist conception of freedom (which links freedom with reason), and the ... More
4. Reality and appearance: more adventures in metaphysics

4. Reality and appearance: more adventures in metaphysics  

Catherine Osborne

in Presocratic Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776267
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192840943.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192840943
‘Reality and appearance: more adventures in metaphysics’ explores the Presocratic philosophers who, like Zeno, suggested that reality and appearance can be prised apart and that the nature ... More
6. My soul and myself

6. My soul and myself  

Julia Annas

in Plato: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775505
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802163.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802163
‘My soul and myself’ examines Plato's understanding of the soul. While Plato in general defends the idea that the soul is immortal, so that its relation to the body is merely temporary, we ... More
5. Enlightened illusions

5. Enlightened illusions  

Stephen Eric Bronner

in Critical Theory: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780190692704
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190692674.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190692674
‘Enlightened illusions’ examines Horkheimer and Adorno's Dialectic of Enlightenment. The work shows how scientific (or instrumental) rationality expels freedom from historical process and ... More
3. Bodies and Selves

3. Bodies and Selves  

A. J. Ayer

in Hume: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776601
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854063.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854063
Do bodies and selves exist separate from our perceptions? ‘Bodies and Selves’ explores Hume's belief that perceptions are connected to external objects and that denying this is ... More
4. Reason, knowledge and scepticism

4. Reason, knowledge and scepticism  

Julia Annas

in Ancient Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776359
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853578.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853578
In modern epistemology, certain assumptions about knowledge are common, such as the view that the existence of knowledge must be justified against the sceptic. How does this differ from ... More
2. Reason and revelation

2. Reason and revelation  

Peter Adamson

in Philosophy in the Islamic World: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2015
Published Online: 
Sep 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785429
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199683673.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199683673
‘Reason and revelation’ points out that in the Islamic world, there was no hard-and-fast distinction between theology, which draws on revelation, and philosophy, which uses only the natural ... More
10. Why medieval philosophy?

10. Why medieval philosophy?  

John Marenbon

in Medieval Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2016
Published Online: 
Jan 2016
eISBN: 
9780191781216
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199663224.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199663224
‘Why medieval philosophy?’ considers why anyone should be bothered to learn about medieval philosophy. Very few people—philosophers and non-philosophers alike—do know much about this period ... More
1. Validity: what follows from what?

1. Validity: what follows from what?  

Graham Priest

in Logic: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2017
Published Online: 
Oct 2017
eISBN: 
9780191848513
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198811701.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198811701
To tell someone that they are not being logical is seen as a criticism. Logic is the study of what counts as a good reason for what, and why. ‘Validity: what follows from what?’ explains ... More
8. Can the study of human behaviour be objective?

8. Can the study of human behaviour be objective?  

Stephen Gaukroger

in Objectivity: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778216
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199606696.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199606696
‘Can the study of human behaviour be objective?’ considers whether a purely functionalist explanation of human behaviour can really answer the questions of why certain behaviours occur. ... More
3. Desire

3. Desire  

Ronald de Sousa

in Love: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2015
Published Online: 
Jan 2015
eISBN: 
9780191781353
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199663842.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199663842
Love essentially involves desire. But what is desire? And what sorts of desire are characteristic of love? ‘Desire’ explains that some of the things lovers want are features desirable in ... More
Foundations

Foundations  

Simon Blackburn

in Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (2nd edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2021
Published Online: 
Jan 2021
eISBN: 
9780191904639
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198868101.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198868101
‘Foundations’ examines the justification for ethics, and its connection with human knowledge and human progress. Are truth and knowledge possible, or does reasoning about what to do ... More
Philosophy of Religion: A Very Short Introduction

Philosophy of Religion: A Very Short Introduction  

Tim Bayne

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2018
Published Online: 
Feb 2018
eISBN: 
9780191816444
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198754961.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198754961
Philosophy of Religion: A Very Short Introduction introduces the field of philosophy of religion, and engages with some of the most burning questions that philosophers discuss. ... More

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