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6. The Soviet Union's turbulent rise

6. The Soviet Union's turbulent rise  

Geoffrey Hosking

in Russian History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777769
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199580989.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199580989
‘The Soviet Union's turbulent rise’ charts the creation of the Soviet Union by the Bolsheviks, who renamed themselves Communists. Communists believed that Marxism, as interpreted by Lenin, ... More
5. NEP: society and culture

5. NEP: society and culture  

S. A. Smith

in The Russian Revolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776502
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853950.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853950
From the start of the NEP, social inequality rose. Class remained a fragile structure. ‘NEP: society and culture’ considers what the Soviets did to refashion the social systems in Russia, ... More
4. Thinking about war

4. Thinking about war  

Harry Sidebottom

in Ancient Warfare: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776045
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804709.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804709
The thinkers of the classical world were very concerned with war, ideas on the reasons for war, its justifications, and its accepted limits. ‘Thinking about war’ considers what these ... More
8. What’s in it for whom?

8. What’s in it for whom?  

Edward Craig

in Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776700
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854216.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854216
Thinking about philosophy is hard. Writing about it is even harder. Why do people bother? Perhaps often just out of curiosity. ‘What's in it for whom?’ asks: why does philosophy exist and ... More
4. The United Nations

4. The United Nations  

Christopher S. Browning

in International Security: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2013
Published Online: 
Oct 2013
eISBN: 
9780191779930
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199668533.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199668533
‘The United Nations’ discusses the world's primary organization of collective security. The United Nations is often seen as an entrepreneur promoting norms of good governance, upholding ... More
2. The formation of the Muscovite state

2. The formation of the Muscovite state  

Geoffrey Hosking

in Russian History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777769
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199580989.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199580989
‘The Formation of the Muscovite state’ charts the history of Muscovy from the late 15th century to the early 19th century. Muscovy enlisted the aid of Cossacks to defend the long and ... More
2. The Coming of War

2. The Coming of War  

Michael Howard

in The First World War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776878
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199205592.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199205592
Although the Balkan crisis differed little from those that had preceded it, Austria–Hungary was determined to use it to permanently crush the Serbian threat. ‘The Coming of War’ ... More
9. Neodruids and the neopagans

9. Neodruids and the neopagans  

Barry Cunliffe

in Druids: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777233
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199539406.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199539406
Whilst 18th-century neodruidic societies embraced the trappings of romantic druidism — occasionally making spurious claims to legitimate descent from the Druids of the Classical world — ... More
6. Rage

6. Rage  

Malcolm Gaskill

in Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2010
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777158
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199236954.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199236954
In first half of the 17th century, Europe was especially prone to witch-panics fuelled by war, rebellion and economic crisis. Rather than allaying fears, witch-hunts spread them. ‘Rage’ ... More
2. Civil war and the foundation of the Bolshevik regime

2. Civil war and the foundation of the Bolshevik regime  

S. A. Smith

in The Russian Revolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776502
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853950.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853950
The October revolution was viewed as a chance for justice and equality to prevail over the old regime of arbitrariness and exploitation. The Bolsheviks hoped that revolution would break out ... More
4. NEP: politics and the economy

4. NEP: politics and the economy  

S. A. Smith

in The Russian Revolution: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776502
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853950.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853950
In March 1921, many feared that the new regime in Russia would not survive. In response Congress endorsed the abandonment of forced requisitioning in favour of a tax in kind on the ... More
5. In and out of prison

5. In and out of prison  

Julian V. Roberts

in Criminal Justice: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2015
Published Online: 
Aug 2015
eISBN: 
9780191785092
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198716495.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198716495
‘In and out of prison’ considers the state of prisons today; the typical prison population; the crimes that result in imprisonment; the costs of imprisonment; the process of release and the ... More
9. Gauls and Romans

9. Gauls and Romans  

Barry Cunliffe

in The Celts: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775901
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804181.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804181
‘Gauls and Romans’ observes that, by the time of Caesar's involvement in Gaul, the Romanizing process in the south was already sixty years old and lucrative trading networks existed. When ... More
11. The collection of the Koran

11. The collection of the Koran  

Michael Cook

in The Koran: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776311
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853448.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853448
History tells us how God's speech came to be collected in the form we see it today. ‘The collection of the Koran’ examines gathering together of the Koranic text. The oldest securely dated ... More
7. The uses of history

7. The uses of history  

Helen Graham

in The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775864
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803771.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803771
History can be used as a weapon of propaganda. The post-Civil War regime manipulated a monolithic and partisan version of the war, referring to it not as a civil war but as a ‘crusade’ or ... More
4. Socialism today and tomorrow

4. Socialism today and tomorrow  

Michael Newman

in Socialism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775949
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804310.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804310
In recent years, many commentators have pronounced the ‘death of socialism’. Few communist regimes survive, and of those that do, most are economically based upon the capitalist market. ... More
2. Political authority

2. Political authority  

David Miller

in Political Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775895
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803955.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803955
‘Political authority’ argues that today, we are creatures of the state and asks: Under what circumstances, if any, do states wield legitimate political authority? How far are we as ordinary ... More
4. Public governance

4. Public governance  

Mark Bevir

in Governance: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2012
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191778209
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199606412.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199606412
‘Public governance’ looks at the effects of the introduction of market practices into the public sector. How have changing views of bureaucracy contributed to the reform of the public ... More
5. Changing the state of matter

5. Changing the state of matter  

Peter Atkins

in Physical Chemistry: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2014
Published Online: 
Apr 2014
eISBN: 
9780191779633
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199689095.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199689095
‘Changing the state of matter’ considers the transformations states of matter undergo from one form to another during the processes of freezing, boiling, dissolving, and mixing. All such ... More
1. What is the welfare state?

1. What is the welfare state?  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
There are three general conceptions used for the welfare state: the first characterizes the welfare state as welfare for the poor; the second focuses on social insurance, social rights, and ... More

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