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4. Morality and its Discontents

4. Morality and its Discontents  

Michael Tanner

in Nietzsche: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776670
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192854148.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192854148
Nietzsche's fundamental concern throughout his life was to plot the relationship between suffering and culture, or cultures. ‘Morality and its Discontents’ shows that correlative with this ... More
Introduction: what is humanism?

Introduction: what is humanism?  

Stephen Law

in Humanism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777363
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199553648.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199553648
There are various connotations to the word ‘humanism’. In the broadest terms, it means a system of thought in which human values, interests, and dignity are considered especially important. ... More
4. Humanism and morality

4. Humanism and morality  

Stephen Law

in Humanism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777363
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199553648.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199553648
Humanists deal with moral questions about what we ought or ought not to do. Ethics features highly in humanism. When considering morality, religious people ask the following questions: how ... More
10. Incorporation

10. Incorporation  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0010
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
‘Incorporation’ deals with the recognition by the law of previously subversive ideas and movements, as well as the discontent of those outside the law. In 1850, trade unions were ... More
5. Meat-eating

5. Meat-eating  

David DeGrazia

in Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776380
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853608.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853608
Can we regard the harm caused to factory farm animals as necessary? We do not need to eat meat in order to live or even to stay healthy. ‘Meat-eating’ examines the ethics of eating meat by ... More
3. What should we maximize?

3. What should we maximize?  

Katarzyna de Lazari‐Radek and Peter Singer

in Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191795558
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728795.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728795
Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism, a theory that tells us that the right act is the one that has the best consequences. But how do we understand ‘best consequences’? ‘What should ... More
Conclusion

Conclusion  

John Dunn

in Locke: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
May 2003
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775888
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192803948.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192803948
The ‘Conclusion’ reviews the mission of John Locke's philosophy. For Locke, the task of a philosopher was to prove that the truth was independent of human desires and tastes, and that at ... More
Humanism: A Very Short Introduction

Humanism: A Very Short Introduction  

Stephen Law

Print Publication Year: 
Jan 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777363
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199553648.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780199553648
Humanism: A Very Short Introduction explores how humanism uses science and reason to make sense of the world, looking at how it encourages individual moral responsibility and ... More
Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction

Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction  

David DeGrazia

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776380
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853608.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192853608
Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction explores the implications for how we should treat animals in connection with our diet, zoos, and research. Most people are opposed to ... More
7. Animal research

7. Animal research  

David DeGrazia

in Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776380
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853608.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853608
It is debatable under what conditions animal research is justified. Estimates of the number of animals used worldwide in research range from 41 to 100 million a year. ‘Animal research’ ... More
Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction

Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction  

Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191795558
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728795.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198728795
Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction describes the nature, varieties, and justifications of utilitarianism, from its origins to arguments that draw on current research in ... More
6. Utilitarianism in action

6. Utilitarianism in action  

Katarzyna de Lazari‐Radek and Peter Singer

in Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191795558
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728795.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728795
In practice, utilitarians put more emphasis on reducing suffering than on increasing happiness. One reason for this is practical: it is easier to provide basic necessities for those who are ... More
5. Rules

5. Rules  

Katarzyna de Lazari‐Radek and Peter Singer

in Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191795558
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728795.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728795
Act-utilitarianism judges each act in terms of its consequences. Rule-utilitarianism holds that acts are to be judged right or wrong by showing they are in accord with, or transgress, a ... More
9. The Epicurean legacy

9. The Epicurean legacy  

Catherine Wilson

in Epicureanism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2015
Published Online: 
Dec 2015
eISBN: 
9780191808951
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199688326.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199688326
‘The Epicurean legacy’ begins by reviewing the Epicurean philosophy outlined in this VSI. It concludes that the Epicurean depiction of the world was both inspiration for and anathema to ... More
4. Objections

4. Objections  

Katarzyna de Lazari‐Radek and Peter Singer

in Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191795558
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728795.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728795
Utilitarianism holds that the right act is the one that brings about the best consequences, where ‘best consequences’ means, for all of those affected by our choice, the greatest possible ... More
2. The liberal narrative

2. The liberal narrative  

Michael Freeden

in Liberalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jun 2015
Published Online: 
Jun 2015
eISBN: 
9780191783258
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199670437.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199670437
Liberalism began as a movement to release people from the social and political shackles that constrained and frequently exploited them. ‘The liberal narrative’ considers the story of ... More
1. Origins

1. Origins  

Katarzyna de Lazari‐Radek and Peter Singer

in Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191795558
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728795.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728795
The core precept of utilitarianism—that we should make the world the best place we can—is so simple and attractive that it is not surprising that thinkers in different times and places have ... More
2. Justification

2. Justification  

Katarzyna de Lazari‐Radek and Peter Singer

in Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Jul 2017
Published Online: 
Jul 2017
eISBN: 
9780191795558
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198728795.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198728795
On ethical questions, to express your opinion is not enough; you need to say something that justifies it or is capable of persuading others to accept it. But proving an ethical first ... More

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