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3. States, societies, and the collapse of socialism

3. States, societies, and the collapse of socialism  

Colin Ward

in Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2004
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776069
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192804778.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192804778
Anarchists make an important distinction between society and the state. Social spontaneity is highly valued by anarchists. They are frequently told that their antipathy to the state is ... More
2. The beginning of secular feminism

2. The beginning of secular feminism  

Margaret Walters

in Feminism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Oct 2005
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776106
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192805102.003.0003
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192805102
‘The beginning of secular feminism’ explores the early secular self-assertion of women, and the difficulties and criticisms they encountered. The significant role of Royalist women during ... More
2. Theories of citizenship and their history

2. Theories of citizenship and their history  

Richard Bellamy

in Citizenship: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2008
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191775604
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192802538.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192802538
There are two types of theory on citizenship: normative theories that try to set out the rights and duties citizens ought to have, and empirical theories that aim to describe and explain ... More
1. What is the welfare state?

1. What is the welfare state?  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
There are three general conceptions used for the welfare state: the first characterizes the welfare state as welfare for the poor; the second focuses on social insurance, social rights, and ... More
6. Problems

6. Problems  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
The welfare state is, at its core, a problem-solving apparatus, designed to manage dysfunctions that are endemic to the economic and social life of modern nations. But welfare states also ... More
9. The indispensable welfare state

9. The indispensable welfare state  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
‘The indispensable welfare state’ concludes that the welfare state is a fundamental dimension of modern government, integral to the economic functioning and social health of capitalist ... More
1. What is multiculturalism?

1. What is multiculturalism?  

Ali Rattansi

in Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777288
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546039.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199546039
An acceptable definition of multiculturalism is notoriously elusive. ‘Multiculturalism’ entered public discourses in the late 1960s and early 1970s. It has never been about encouraging ... More
4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’

4. ‘Integration’, class inequality, and ‘community cohesion’  

Ali Rattansi

in Multiculturalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Sep 2011
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191777288
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199546039.003.0005
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199546039
The concept of ‘integration’ has replaced multiculturalism as the key theme of national and local policies towards ethnic minorities. Especially in Britain, the notions of ‘community ... More
6. Advantages and disadvantages of federalism

6. Advantages and disadvantages of federalism  

Mark J. Rozell and Clyde Wilcox

in Federalism: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2019
Published Online: 
Nov 2019
eISBN: 
9780190900083
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780190900052.003.0006
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190900052
Advantages and disadvantages of federalism as much as the federal system is the preferred option of Americans who historically have had a skeptical view of centralized power, it is far from ... More
1. Ageing, a brief history

1. Ageing, a brief history  

Nancy A. Pachana

in Ageing: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2016
Published Online: 
Nov 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792670
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725329.003.0001
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780198725329
How has the construct of ageing, and attitudes towards it, changed over time? How have human beings from various historical epochs, cultures, and perspectives viewed ageing? What impact ... More
Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction

Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction  

David DeGrazia

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776380
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853608.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780192853608
Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction explores the implications for how we should treat animals in connection with our diet, zoos, and research. Most people are opposed to ... More
7. Animal research

7. Animal research  

David DeGrazia

in Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2002
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776380
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853608.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853608
It is debatable under what conditions animal research is justified. Estimates of the number of animals used worldwide in research range from 41 to 100 million a year. ‘Animal research’ ... More
23. Edwardian Years: A Crisis of the State Contained

23. Edwardian Years: A Crisis of the State Contained  

Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew

in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Aug 2000
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776533
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853981.003.0023
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853981
‘Edwardian Years: A Crisis of the State Contained’ is concerned with the genesis of the welfare state and the other changes of the Edwardian period. Social inquiries revealed the levels of ... More
8. Social well-being and democratic government

8. Social well-being and democratic government  

Partha Dasgupta

in Economics: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2007
Published Online: 
Sep 2013
eISBN: 
9780191776328
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780192853455.003.0009
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780192853455
‘Social well-being and democratic government’ examines the link between government and economics. Democracy is not a sure-fire way to gain economic growth, but a positive correlation does ... More
7. The civil peace

7. The civil peace  

Oliver P. Richmond

in Peace: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Nov 2014
Published Online: 
Nov 2014
eISBN: 
9780191788642
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199656004.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199656004
‘The civil peace’ describes a type of peace that is based on the idea that every person in society has the ability to mobilize for peace from a number of different perspectives which could ... More
4. The welfare state 1.0

4. The welfare state 1.0  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0004
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
The newly-emergent welfare states shared a distinctive set of features that set them apart both from the old poor laws and from state socialism. ‘The Welfare State 1.0’ identifies these ... More
7. Neoliberalism and WS 2.0

7. Neoliberalism and WS 2.0  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0007
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
The welfare states that enjoyed three decades of expansion after 1945 endured a challenging period in the following decades. From the late 1970s, in one country after another, opposition ... More
2. Before the welfare state

2. Before the welfare state  

David Garland

in The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Mar 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191780981
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199672660.003.0002
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199672660
Welfare states emerged in western nations at the end of the 19th century and were fully established in the middle decades of the 20th. But collective social provision in one form or another ... More
7. Affluence, depression, and world war, 1920–45

7. Affluence, depression, and world war, 1920–45  

Donald T. Critchlow

in American Political History: A Very Short Introduction

Print Publication Year: 
Dec 2014
Published Online: 
Feb 2015
eISBN: 
9780199393725
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780199340057.003.0008
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780199340057
The quarter-century from 1920 to 1945 proved to be both critical and transformative for American government. Americans witnessed in these twenty-five years an economic boom in the 1920s, a ... More
Agriculture: A Very Short Introduction

Agriculture: A Very Short Introduction  

Paul Brassley and Richard Soffe

Print Publication Year: 
Apr 2016
Published Online: 
Apr 2016
eISBN: 
9780191792939
DOI: 
10.1093/actrade/9780198725961.001.0001
Item type: 
book
ISBN: 
9780198725961
Agriculture: A Very Short Introduction explains what farmers do and why they do it. Beginning with the most basic resource, the soil, it shows why it is important, and how ... More

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