After the turbulent 1830s, doubt and discord haunted the antislavery ranks. Facing opposition in the North and South, immediate abolitionists quarrelled not only with their opponents but also with each other. A series of questions loomed: Should abolitionists moderate their protest or become even more radical? Should they form a political party or separate from corrupt civil and religious institutions? Should they aid fugitive slaves or embrace nonviolence? Should women and African Americans take more or less prominent roles in the antislavery movement? “The abolitionist crossroads” explains how the 1840s were a time of dynamism and change for abolitionism not just in America but around the world.