Land warfare, the oldest and most complex form, has the longest history. ‘Land warfare’ subdivides this physical realm into traditional periodization and further delineates it by two “combined arms paradigms” and two “military revolutions”—the introduction of the chariot and of gunpowder. It begins with wooden spears used in prehistoric warfare, then moves into ancient warfare during the Neolithic revolution. The vast majority of prehistoric weapons were dual-use technologies that served both military and civilian purposes. Siege warfare of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the technologies of classical warfare during Greek and Roman times, the heavily armed and armored mounted knight of medieval warfare, and the gunpowder revolution are also described.