Vocal and instrumental music exists in all known human cultures. The age and ubiquity of music seem to argue that its origins are biological. But the diversity of musical practices around the world seems to argue, instead, that its origins are cultural. This diversity extends to the very notion of what constitutes music. “The biological origins of music” first considers what musical features tend to be shared across cultures. It then looks at how neuroimaging can identify the regions of the brain that engage when listening to music, how music can affect human life and wellness, and the evolutionary origins of music. It also considers whether nonhuman animals can be musical.