What does it mean to be musical? What kind of musicality are people born with, and how does it develop in such diverse ways? The fact that the ability to perform and appreciate music varies so substantially from person to person raises questions about the nature of musical capacity and its acquisition. “Human musicality” first considers one of its central aspects—pitch perception—and outlines the difference between relative and absolute pitch. It then examines the stages of development across which people acquire musical skills and the effects of musical training. It also discusses individual differences in musical abilities and behaviors, including musical savants, amusia, and musical anhedonia.