‘From resignation to renewal’ examines where critical theory has gone wrong, and how it can reorient itself for the future. Critical theory was originally intended as an alternative to mainstream metaphysics and materialism. However, after the outbreak of World War II, the liberating alternatives vanished, and resistance became increasingly existential and arbitrary. The preoccupation of critical theorists with abstract preoccupations has left them open to ridicule. Max Horkheimer originally viewed critical theory as a public philosophy. To realise his goal, modern critical theorists must stop trying to express the inexpressible and instead offer practical solutions to the ways society stunts individuality.