‘Environmental factors’ argues that, though genetic factors have an important role in causing schizophrenia, they cannot be the whole story. The search for other factors has been lengthy and wide-ranging but inconclusive. The factors may be divided into two classes: social/psychological and biological but not genetic. Psychodynamic accounts of psychosis can be divided into those concentrating on the individual and those concentrating on the family. Outside psychoanalysis, however, there is a large body of work proposing that social factors may influence the development of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Sadly, the social and material poverty associated with ‘care in the community’ may be greater than those formerly experienced in institutional care.