Citizenship involves a sense of belonging to a given political community. Does this link with membership render citizenship ‘exclusive’? This notion has become increasingly controversial of late. ‘Membership and belonging’ explores the internal and external dimensions of the exclusiveness of citizenship. It examines the rationale for the traditional qualifications of citizenship based on class, property, gender, and ethnicity and the internal forces that challenge each. How is the exclusion of particular categories of outsiders justified? How far such exclusions are perceived as discriminatory depends on the why they are imposed. What does global citizenship mean and what are the implications of national requirements for citizenship for an increasingly globalized society?