‘Existence and pessimism’ examines the fourth book of The World As Will and Representation, which addresses the human condition itself. Schopenhauer finds the world full of suffering — frustration, tedium, pain, and misery. Is this merely a highly selective inventory, perhaps a matter of personal propensity? If so, his pessimism would be superficial and gratuitous. But this is not the case. He has arguments for far-reaching conclusions about the value that can attach to human existence. It must contain suffering, and cannot be preferable to non-existence. It would even have been better for reality not to have existed. These claims make Schopenhauer a pessimist in a philosophically interesting sense.