Developments in linguistics provided another external source of inspiration for students of ideology. ‘The struggle over political language’ explores the contribution of language to the development of ideology. The meaning of language — in particular the emphasis on grammar and semantics — played a critical role in enabling similar ideologies to be expressed in their own specific terms. Making sense of ideological texts became an increasingly important role for political theorists. From this emerged the four Ps of ideological composition: proximity, priority, permeability, and proportionality. These have provided an important tool for complex comparative analysis of ideologies.