Ideological fragmentation and malleability has led to new developments in the theory of ideology. ‘Discursive realities and surrealities’ examines the differing responses to these developments. Some scholars have concentrated on the fragments and this branch of study of the micro-ideologies is discourse analysis. This has drawn on studies in hermeneutics, semantics, and postmodern studies. Others have reactivated the old Marxist scepticism about what lies behind the continual ideological permutations. Post-Marxists and poststructuralists have given new impetus to the study of ideology. They have refused to take any fact, any opinion, any framework, for granted.