Ideology has been dealt with as it is found in written and spoken languages but in ‘Stimuli and responses: seeing and feeling ideologies’ three further themes are introduced. Firstly, ideology appears in many non-verbal forms. Second, even as textual discourse, ideology includes metaphors and stories that are not directly decodable as political language. Third, ideology concerns not only the rational and the irrational, the cognitive and the unconscious, but the emotional as well. Over the last century, with the advent of film and television, as well as the mass production of art and advertising, the virtual messages of ideology have been conveyed in new forms.