‘History wars’ uses the literature of the second century AD to recover a sense of how those who were conquered sought to establish an identity in a new imperial world. Conquest by Rome had an enormous impact — architecturally, intellectually and organizationally. The past was refashioned and incorporated into a Roman present in which cities wanted to participate. Some authors reacted by producing their own competing histories. Pausanias' Description of Greece offers a tour of the sights, but gives primacy to antiquity, not Roman contributions. Plutarch tried to show that Roman history was best understood from a Greek perspective and present the two peoples in parallel.