War played a huge part in the lives of the Greeks and Romans in the ancient world. It was all pervasive. They frequently used ideas connected to war to understand their place in the world. War also structured their thoughts on culture, gender, and the individual. ‘Thinking with war’ looks in turn at these aspects of classical life that are infused with thoughts on war. When Greeks and Romans thought about ‘Eastern’ cultures and their own cultures they often thought in terms of warfare. War was strongly gendered in classical antiquity. It played a large part in the formation of individual personalities in classical times.