Anarchists believe that popular self-organization could provide new systems of social organization replacing those the state has tried to provide. But sceptics dismiss anarchism as a primitive ideology that is not relevant to the modern world. ‘Deflating nationalism and fundamentalism’ examines the anarchist position on religion and secularism and the difficulties they have facing religious fundamentalism. As with other left-wing factions of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the anarchists saw territorial and religious separatism as irrelevant and outmoded. They now have to hope that religious zealotory will lose impetus as people turn to other issues to concern themselves with.