There is no easy answer to the question of what racism is, how it developed, and why it continues. The Introduction argues that these are complex and contentious issues and that one of the main impediments to progress in understanding racism has been the willingness of academics to try to define racism and identify what constitutes a racist. It is important to bear in mind that a distinction exists between general ‘prejudice’ and racism. Humans have always lived in groups and found a common feeling of belonging to a collective. However, historical and anthropological evidence suggests that the ‘outside’ is not inevitably subject to hostility.