The Conclusion argues that conflicts between geo-cultural groups have been a perennial part of human history, and a combination of ethnic, linguistic, and religious boundaries has been crucial in creating prejudice and hostility. Each group, bound by geography and culture, has proved to be prone to see the world and ‘strangers’ through its own ethnocentric frame. However, it is important to remember that these frames are subject to internal fracturing along economic, cultural, gender, and smaller geo-political fault lines. But historical, anthropological, and psychological evidence shows that there is no necessary translation of group loyalty into hostility. How can we move beyond racism?