The year that marks the birth of Western modernity is 1492 when Columbus set off for his momentous journey. It was the beginning of conquest and pillage of those beyond the ‘civilized’, Christian world. ‘Beyond the pale: scientific racism, the nation, and the politics of colour’ examines the impact of how Columbus viewed the people he met on his voyage to the subsequent development of a justification for a type of racism. The word race didn't enter the English language until the 16th century. In the 18th century, during the Enlightenment, the idea of race began to be incorporated into more systematic meditations on the nature of the world. In the 19th century, scientists tried to explain race.