2. Early Scandinavian kingdoms
- Julian D. Richards
The Viking Age can't be understood without some understanding of Scandinavia and the changes that took place there from the 8th century onwards. ‘Early Scandinavian kingdoms’ looks at Scandinavian culture and society at home and how it spread, was adapted, and assimilated overseas. The Danes, Norwegians, and Swedes can trace their origins to the Viking Age. The modern Scandinavian countries did not exist at the start of the Viking Age, and it is seen as the period during which they acquired their national identities. Scandinavia has always felt to be on the fringes of Europe, both geographically and culturally. But the Scandinavian people had a transnational identity.