‘The expanding mandate’ examines how the World Trade Organization (WTO) has gone beyond the scope of the system it replaced. The GATT 1994 agreement built on the existing GATT 1947 agreement. It forced countries to adhere to more rigorous disciplines on tariffs, including agriculture and textiles, and introduced stricter rules on non-tariff barriers. As the economies of the developed world shifted from production to services, the WTO introduced the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The WTO also required countries to change national legislation on trade-related intellectual properties (TRIPs). Generally this expanded mandate has hampered developing countries, but some have adapted to the changes.