Habermas believes that traditional societies are held together by a shared ethos. Modern societies are complex, differentiated, and multicultural. Subjects consider themselves first and foremost as individuals. ‘Politics, democracy, and law’ looks at the wider picture of Habermas's views on social integration and his programme of democratic and legal theory. He argues that under modern conditions moral discourse is the primary mechanism of social integration. Habermas's pogramme of democratic and legal theory recognises that modern social orders are forged by moral norms and also political institutions and laws. Habermas is optimistic about the capacity of democratic institutions to cope with the problems of modern societies.