Habermas's antipathy toward nationalism comes from a clear-sighted and nuanced appreciation of the social pre-conditions of human wrongs based on his own experiences. ‘Germany, Europe, and post-national citizenship’ looks at Habermas's conception of the nation and his views on the history of the modern European nation and how it came about. Under what conditions does nationalism arise? The experiment of European integration needs to continue, Habermas states, if for no other reason except that we know the alternative is worse. Can European Union succeed in providing partial solutions to post-national problems or at the least create a platform for an eventual cosmopolitan world order?