‘The nation in history’ investigates historical notions of nationhood. Nations are generally thought of as being relatively recent inventions, as it is believed that earlier societies did not have the necessary cultural cohesion due to the lack of technology and education. However, this view underestimates ancient and pre-modern societies, who coalesced around legal, religious, military, and linguistic constructions. The main difference between pre-modern and modern societies was the level of participation. A major formative factor in nationhood is the exploitation of myth to infuse a unique nationalistic vision in citizens. These are not easily verifiable, and even change when the situation merits it.