‘Conclusion’ places this discussion of nationalism in the wider context of current research. Nationalism research increased in the early twentieth century as the world tried to come to terms with World War I. It continued to try to understand later phenomena such as Fascism, World War II, and anti-colonialism. Scholarly concepts of nation differ on two fronts: firstly, how much do nations affect individuals? Second, how recent are ‘nations’? The last century was important for understanding nations, but what do nations say about us? Humans form kinships to promote vitality. Nations introduce bounded territories to complicate kinship formation. In the new millennium, nations — and nationalism — are here to stay.