What are animals and what are their mental lives like? The Introduction provides a historical sketch of traditional thinking about animals and the emergence of the animal rights movement. The main sources of traditional thinking about animals' moral status have been religion and philosophy which interact with science to shape conceptions of what we see animals as. The Bible largely reinforced the Aristotelian view of animals by asserting that God created humans in his own image, and that we are free to use natural resources, including animals, for our own purposes. Are animals able to reason?