‘Beneath the Surface’ considers more detailed thoughts on the construction of such monuments as the Apollo Temple at Bassae and the various society conditions that made the building possible. How was the transportation of the huge weights of building materials arranged? And who paid? These questions all point to slavery. Greece and Rome were notorious slave-owning societies. In fifth-century bce Athens, slaves formed about 40% of the total population. Modern classical archaeology looks to answer these questions. It draws on the newest techniques of scientific analysis, and on the newest theories of economic and social change. The combination of these new skills with the long-known evidence of ancient writers makes the most impact.