What impact did the presence of the Arabs and Turks, then the Europeans in India, have on Hinduism? What impact did this presence have on the religion of the Hindus? ‘Hinduism, Colonialism, and Modernity’ tries to answer these last two questions, and in particular looks at the effect of British colonialism. Many of the new Hindu initiatives of the nineteenth century were pervaded in some way by the influence of Western culture and Christian ideas. Many neo-Hindus, such as Gandhi, developed their ideas and actions from the context of British colonial rule. Gandhi was influenced by Western images of India and Hinduism, either rejecting or initiating in response.