‘The Propertied Classes’ casts its gaze over the upper middle class. This class was divided between the professional and the manufacturing middle class. The manufacturing class increasingly sent their sons to receive the same educational process as the professional class. Men educated in this way ran the empire and engaged in commerce. The success of the financial services sector helped maintain the balance of payments. The upper middle classes were important, but not dominant in society to the extent that they replaced the aristocracy. Smaller middle-class families gave women the time to become involved in charities and local politics, as well as pursue further educational opportunities.