- Christopher Harvie
- and H. C. G. Matthew
‘Old Liberalism, New Liberalism, Labourism and Tariff Reform’ summarizes the end of old liberalism in the face of the critiques of the political parties. Liberal radicals placed their faith in a land tax, as part of land reform designed to improve the condition of the working class. ‘New Liberalism’ attempted to justify the free-market system by making it work ‘fairly’, through redistributive taxation and programmes to help individuals maximize their abilities. By doing so, they hoped to avoid losing out to the labour movement. The Tories proposed Tariff Reform to protect new industries, but the electorate was not yet prepared to part with Free Trade.