‘The Wars Abroad’ addresses the impact of the Napoleonic Wars on Britain. The French Revolution saw Britain unprepared for Continental war and threatened with dissent and the contagion of revolutionary ideas. Radical groups were suppressed in Pitt's ‘Reign of Terror’ and Ireland found itself forced into political union with England. The rule of law was triumphant, and Benthamite reform rejuvenated local administration. Wartime expenditure led to further expansion in the iron and textile industries. The impact of the war at home was limited, due to its primarily overseas nature. Imperial gains were made at the expense of France and the Netherlands.