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p. 423. Politics, Law, and Religion in the Early Middle Ageslocked

  • John Gillingham
  •  and Ralph A. Griffiths


Wales in the eleventh century was a group of small kingdoms without stable borders. They changed in accordance with law and politics. The English kings had done little to impose military and administrative control. ‘Politics, Law, and Religion in the Early Middle Ages’ considers how control of the regions was tightened during the reign of Edward I. The Norman Conquest of Wales was only completed when Edward I came to power. Before this period, the conquest was a piecemeal affair, undertaken and carried through by individual Anglo-Norman baronial families. In contrast to Wales, at this time much of Scotland was ruled by the king of Scots. For political and economic reasons the king travelled constantly.

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