Questions of identity pervade the subject of Egyptology. What was it like to be an ancient Egyptian? How did they distinguish themselves from their neighbouring nations? ‘Identity: issues of ethnicity, race, and gender’ also asks whether we should define ancient Egyptians by their language, geographical location, or physical appearance. The Egyptians defined themselves and their rulers by establishing and emphasizing contracts between themselves and non-Egyptians in Africa and the Near East. Should we regard Egypt as an essentially ‘black’ civilization, culturally appropriated and misrepresented by ‘white’ Europeans? The Egyptians regarded themselves in purely cultural non-racial terms.