‘Psychoanalysis today’ asks how modern psychoanalytical techniques have evolved from Freud's theories. It is difficult to define psychoanalysis, but modern therapists currently use a definition based on five basic assumptions. Early psychoanalysts made bold claims about their work, promising character transformations and total cures. Modern psychoanalysts are more realistic, and concentrate on the management of symptoms to alleviate life problems. The object-relations school has also moved away from Freud, by placing more emphasis on interpersonal relationships and transference than on repressed sexual phantasies. It is not easy to assess the efficacy of psychoanalytical techniques, but just the act of attending sessions in an accepting environment can make a massive difference.