‘Conclusion’ reviews developments in documentary film making and the growth of scholarship in this area. The documentary form has evolved along with technological possibilities. Sound, colour, and 16mm transformed the way that filmmakers could capture reality and tell stories. Video dramatically expanded the range of people telling stories. Digitization and the Internet again modify and transfigure possibilities and opportunities. Academics have explored the complexities behind documentary' claim to truthfulness about the real world. Changes in documentary expression may encourage further academic work on standards and ethics, while the growth in participatory media may stimulate more interdisciplinary work by sociologists, anthropologists, communications scholars, political scientists, information scientists, and film scholars.