There were many contradictions in the way that the Native Americans were treated following European invasion, particularly in terms of the antithetical policies of separating Indians on reservations while assimilating them into American society. By the end of the 19th century, the conclusion was that the special status of Indians as sovereign peoples should end and they should be incorporated as individuals into American society. ‘Assimilation and allotment’ examines the problems that assimilation of Native Americans posed, including in education, land ownership, poverty, and employment. Assimilation was not managed smoothly, and by the 1920s calls for reform were mounting. It wasn't until 1924 that U.S. citizenship rights were extended to all Indians.