How did immigration and resettlement affect the people within the massive migration cohorts? The processes of mass international migration happened within the historical context of the early nineteenth century. Societies with too much labor could export their surpluses to societies with not enough. ‘Mass population movements, and resettlement, 1820–1924’ looks at how the world redistributed its population. Mass immigration and resettlement may appear chaotic but this was rarely the perception of immigrants. The system of migration once started took on a familiar pattern for successive waves of migrating people. The lure of migration seemed to attract a similar type of people. Hard work, high aspirations, and family and group solidarity are characteristic of immigrant groups.