‘The interwar period: square holes in round tells’ discusses the development of biblical archaeology in the period of the British Mandate, during which the British authorities created the first Department of Antiquities in Palestine. The work of William Foxwell Albright and the introduction of the Three Age System of classification is explained. Nelson Glueck's role in advancing the field of biblical archaeology in the interwar period is discussed, as is the work of the archaeologists from the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The revolutionary method of excavating introduced by Kathleen Kenyon is described. This is still the principal method used by archaeologists in the Holy Land and elsewhere.