In all, the United States has a very large number of political and governmental players who are constantly busy with politicking, judging, and administering. ‘Elements of American democracy’ asks: What connects them to the wishes of citizens? The quest for public support invites extra-constitutional players to publicize or to influence the activities of officeholders and the procedures of national, state, and local governments. New items come onto the agenda of national debate because politicians hunt for novel issues to help their careers or their political parties. But despite this and despite the formal freedom to form advocacy groups, glaring gaps in representation have long shadowed the American polity.