‘Internal upsurge: movements and stars’ describes the formation of folk music movements and the birth of folk music stars. Folk music can organize into and around collective movements, for example protest groups. It can also coalesce around a cultural concept, such as Celtic music, which can strengthen national identity. Dislocation from rural areas into cities decentres people, but also provides new opportunities to affiliate, which in turn affects music back ‘home’. Folk music constructs social networks, which can admit passionate outsiders. Occasionally this communal energy gives rise to stardom for its members, which allows the acquisition of material wealth, but also provides a chance for inner transformation.