‘The head and neck’ describes the anatomy of the jaw, eye and orbit, nose, pharynx, larynx, and ear, and considers some of the evolutionary processes in their development. Vision is said to be the dominant sense in humans, and the structure of the eye and the surrounding orbit is complex. The air passages of the nasal cavity lead through openings at the back of the nose, the choanae, into the pharynx. The pathways for food and air diverge in the lower pharynx (oropharynx), continuing as the larynx and oesophagus, respectively. The ear has undergone more gross evolutionary transformation in vertebrate history than the other sense organs.