Behaviours evolve by natural selection. As genes influence how behaviours develop, selection on behaviour will alter gene frequencies in subsequent generations: genes that lead to successful behaviours in foraging, parental care, or mate choice, for example, will be represented in more individuals in future generations. If conditions change, then mutations of the genes that give rise to advantageous behaviours will be favoured by selection. ‘How behaviour develops’ explains that the environment is equally important: both genes and environment are intimately and interactively involved in behaviour development. Behavioural imprinting is also discussed along with co-opting genes, gene regulation, social influences on brain gene expression, phenotypic plasticity, and play.