Our behaviour as humans has profound effects on the lives of other animals. ‘Applying behaviour’ explores some of the ways that we can use an understanding of animal behaviour to reduce our conflict with animals as we compete with them for food and space in the global environment. A better understanding of animal behaviour—including mating systems, imprinting, migration, and interactions with other species—can be an important part of attempts to conserve endangered animals. We can also attempt to make life better for our domesticated animals. Every way of studying animal behaviour—from neuroscience, development, learning, to behavioural ecology—can play a part.