Although poverty reduction has not occurred as fast as anyone would like, we know a considerable amount about what is helpful in the struggle against poverty. We also know a lot about what is not helpful. What seems to reduce poverty? What does not? Why have countries in East Asia and the Pacific excelled in poverty reduction, while sub-Saharan African countries and many developed countries have not? ‘Combating poverty’ considers the role of economic growth and inequality, the role of governance and institutions, markets and trade, social safety nets and social protection systems, infrastructure, foreign aid, the treatment of women and girls, and evaluation of the policies and programmes that reduce poverty.