India officially became ‘independent’ in 1947 and a Republic in 1950. Neither were easy transitions. The cinema would inherit all of India’s political contradictions. It would soon become apparent that India, once incapable of creating an ‘Empire’ film, was now equally unable to provide the newly free country with a properly nationalist cinema. ‘Partition and the “all-India” film’ describes India’s film industry in Bombay after the war; the arrival of the most famous stars; the success of film music; and the impact of independent auteurs Satyajit Ray, Guru Dutt, and Ritwik Ghatak, who defined local industries as they emerged from out of the shadow of Bombay.