In 1956, a decade after Independence, India divided its regional states along linguistic lines. This politically-loaded decision opened up fraught histories that went back well over a century. ‘The new cinemas’ describes the impact on the cinema industry. The cinema now found itself radicalized on a number of fronts, becoming the vanguard of a variety of challenges to the Indian state, seceding from the default nationalism of the Bombay-based ‘all-India film’. There were occasionally successful efforts to make peace between the state and the film industry. Key figures in the New Cinema movement were Mani Kaul, Shyam Benegal, and Adoor Gopalakrishnan.